Lake is a body of relatively still fresh or salt water of considerable size, localized in a basin that is surrounded by land. All lakes are temporary over geologic time scale, as they will slowly fill in with sediments or spill out of the basin containing them. Fault Lake Dead Sea, Baikal. Lagoon Chilka, Maracaibo, Pulicat, Vembanad. Titicaca Lake is the highest navigable lake of the world. Superior Lake is the largest freshwater lake of the world.
Baikal Lake is the deepest lake of the world. Dead Sea is the lowest lake of the world. Devtal is the highest lake of the India.
Lake Michigan is entirely in the USA. Lake Assal Djibouti is the most saline lake of the world. Ten Longest Rivers of the World : 1.
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Nile 2. Amazon 3. Yangtze 4.
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Mississippi Missouri 5. Yenisei Angara 6. Huang He 7. Ob-Irtysh 8. Parana Rio de la Plata 9.
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Congo Zaire Amur Longest Rivers of the Continents: 1. Asia 2. Africa 3. North America 4. South America 5. Europe 6. Africa S. Africa Zambia Zambia Tanzania. Drainage Pattern : Means spatial arrangement and form of drainage system in terms of geometrical shapes. Sequent Streams : 1. Consequent Streams : These are first streams to originate in a particular region and they follow the initial slope of land surface.
Subsequent Streams : These originate after the master consequent stream and follow the axis of the anticlines. They generally meet the master stream at right angle. Obsequent Streams : These flow in opposite direction to the master consequent streams. Resequent Streams : They flow in the direction of the master consequent streams but are of recent origin. Insequent Drainage Systems : 1. Antecedent Streams : Those which originate prior to the upliftment of land surface. For example, Indus and Brahmaputra.
Superimposed Streams : They are formed when the nature and characteristics of the valleys and flow direction of a consequent stream developed on the upper geological formation and structure are superimposed on the lower geological formation of entirely different characteristic. Most of the rivers of the Deccan Plateau and the Subanarekha have superimposed drainage system.
Drainage Patterns : 1. Trellis Patterns : It develops in an area of simple folds characterized by parallel anticlinal ridges alternated by parallel synclinal valleys.
yqedygulig.cf Dendritic Drainage Pattern : They resemble tree shape. They develop in areas of homogenous lithologies, horizontal or very gently dipping strata, flat and rolling extensive topographic surface having extremely low reliefs. Rectangular Drainage Pattern : Develops in regions where the rock joints form rectangular pattern. The tributary streams meet the master stream almost at right angle. Radial Drainage Pattern : Also known as centrifugal pattern.
This is formed by the streams which diverge from a central higher point in all directions. Centripetal Drainage Pattern : Opposite to radial the streams converge at a point. Annular Drainage Pattern : Such pattern develops over a nature and dissected dome mountain characterized by a series of alternate bands of hard and soft rock. Barbed Drainage Pattern : In this tributaries flow in opposite direction to the master stream.
This is generally happened because of river capture. Pinnate Drainage Pattern : This develops in a narrow valley flanked by sleep ranges. Tributaries join at acute angles. The Narmada and the Son have such pattern. It resembles the veins of leaves. Herringbone Drainage Pattern : Also known a rib pattern, develops in a broad valley flanked by parallel ridges. Tributaries join the master stream almost at right angle. Jhelam, Kosi, Rapti and Gandak have such pattern.
Parallel Drainage Pattern : Numerous rivers flow parallel to each other following the regional slope. The rivers of the western coast of India have developed parallel drainage pattern.
Different exogenetic processes are clubbed into a particular term called denudation. Degradation brings down the higher parts, whereas aggradation fills the low lying areas. Physical Weathering : Block disintegration due to temperature change Granular disintegration due to temperature change Shattering due to rain shower and heat Block disintegration due to frost action Exfoliation due to temperature and wind Disintegration and exfoliation due to unloading Slaking Dry-wet alternative Salt weathering growth of salt crystals from solution 2.
Biotic Weathering : Faunal weathering Floral weathering Anthropogenetic weathering 4. Biochemical Weathering : Erosion : The process by which the rocks are broken and transported from a place to another place. Various Processes of Erosion : 1. Attrition : Erosion of rocks due to mutual friction 3. Corrosion : Separation of soluble rocks by water 4. Hydraulic Action : Erosion by the fast action of flowing water 5. Water Pressure : Erosion due to the pressure exerted by the water.
Plucking : Dragging of rocks by glaciers 7. Deflation : Blowing away of rock particles by the wind. Geyser : It is a spring characterized by intermittent discharge of water ejected turbulently and accompanied by a vapour phase. Geysers can eject water with regular interval or irregularly. Aquifer : It refers to the storage pools of ground water lying below the ground surface. Artesian Wells : An artificial hole through which water comes out on the surface naturally due to hydrostatic pressure. Australia has the largest artesian basin of the world called the Great Artesian Basin.
It is generally compared with weather, which is a short time phenomenon of the same elements. Weather: It refers, generally, to day-to-day temperature and precipitation activity, whereas climate is the term for the average atmospheric condition over longer periods of time. Most of the weather phenomena occur in the troposphere. Composition of Atmosphere: -Atmosphere is composed of gases, water vapour and various particulate matters.
Argon 0. Carbon Dioxide 0. Neon 0. Ozone 0. Hydrogen 0.
Krypton Trace Xenon Trace It decreases with the decrease in temperature. That is why it decreases polewards. Thus, it helps in heating the atmosphere from below. But 97 per cent of atmospheric components are confined up to the height of only 29 km. Troposphere: Its average height is about 16 to 18 km over the equator and decreases down towards the poles and is only 6 to 8 km over the poles. This rate is called normal lapse rate NLR.
Stratosphere: It is separated from the stratosphere by the tropopause, whereas its upper limit goes up to stratopause at the height of 50km. The ozonosphere occupies the height between 15km to 35km. Mesosphere: It extends between 50km to 80km. Ionosphere: It extends from 80km to km.